Common Sheet Metal Fabrication Techniques

Yawei HPE-3058 CNC Turret Punch Press

Classification of Sheet Metal Fabrication Techniques

Sheet metal fabrication techniques can largely be put into two classifications – forming and cutting. Framing procedures are those in which the connected power makes the material plastically deform, yet not to fail. Such procedures can curve or stretch the sheet into the ideal shape. Cutting procedures are those in which the connected power makes the material come up short and isolated, enabling the material to be cut or evacuated. Most cutting procedures are performed by applying an extraordinary enough shearing power to isolate the material while others evacuate material by utilizing heat or abrasion.

Classification of Sheet Metal Fabrication Techniques

This short glossary details common sheet metal fabrication methods from start to finish.


A process done by welding, binding with adhesives, and bending in the form of a crimped seam 


A process done by hammering or via press brakes


A process in which a part is cut out of the sheet metal, and the material around the part is discarded


A process done by sawing, shearing, or chiseling with manual and power tools or torching with handheld plasma torches using computer numerical computer (CNC) cutters like lasers

Die cutting

A process that cuts metal pieces without the formation of chips or the use of burning or melting; also known as shearing


A process using self-clinching tools like nuts, studs, spacers, access hardware, or cable tie mounts and hooks to provide torque resistance in applications where the sheet metal is too thin to be secured by other methods


A process in which a completed metal project’s surface is altered to achieve a certain property, which includes improved appearance; adhesion or wettability; solderability; corrosion, tarnish chemical, or wear resistance; hardness; electrical conductivity; surface friction control; and blemish removal


A process of applying a protective zinc coating to steel or iron to prevent rusting


A process where two metals slide against each other to create a shiny, wear-protective layer of oxide


A forming and fabricating process that uses a specialized type of die molding, which uses highly pressurized fluid to shape metals like steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminum, and brass

Metal punching

A process in which metal fabrication equipment punches holes, louvers, or a predetermined shape out of sheet metal


A process of using rotary cutters to remove material from a metal piece, advancing in a direction at an angle with the axis of a tool

Oxy acetylene welding

A process in which a tank of oxygen and acetylene combine with an adjustable torch to result in a precise, controlled flame used to heat metal

Roll forming

A constant bending process in which sheet metal, coil, bar, or strips of metal pass through rolls that form the metal


A process to remove small dents in which the direct damage isn’t severely stretched or torn and the hardness of the buckles isn’t severe


A process by which a disc or tube of metal rotates at a high speed and forms into an axially symmetric part using a CNC lathe or by hand


A high production process in which single or multiple punches, bends, and embossing perform simultaneously or in a progressive die


A process that uses a hammer and dolly, a stretcher, or an English wheel to pull metal apart


A method of shrinking metal by bunching it together through force using a crevice and spade hammer or a folding technique where the metal is bent at the edges with a homemade tucking fork

Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding

A two-handed arc welding process that uses a non-consumable tungsten electrode to produce the weld

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